What home inspectors don't notice (© PhotoConcepts/the Agency Collection)

© PhotoConcepts/the Agency Collection

Mice, mold and leaking bathtubs are among the last discoveries that homebuyers want to make after moving into a new home. But that's exactly what a client of Oakland, Calif.-based financial planner Cathy Curtis found shortly after closing.

"The first week she moved in, she emailed me in a panic that there are mice, she needs a new furnace, and the ducts, bathtubs and kitchen cabinets need to be replaced," Curtis said. Total cost to fix everything: tens of thousands of dollars. (Bing: How much does a home inspection cost?)

"I'm surprised that more of this didn't come up in the inspection," she said.

Home inspections, it turns out, are much more limited than many first-time buyers realize.

"The purpose of a home inspection is to look for material defects of a property — things that are unsafe, not working or that create a hazard," said Kurt Salomon, president of the American Society of Home Inspectors and an inspector based in Salt Lake City. Homebuyers, however, "think we can see through walls and predict the future," he said.

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What home inspectors don't do, in addition to harnessing psychic powers, is test for environmental safety, such as lead in the paint or radon in the air, although they might recommend that the potential buyer do so. Inspectors can also overlook mold or vermin, if evidence of their existence is hidden behind floorboards or otherwise obscured. They also don't examine child-safety issues, such as how easy it is to get into cabinets or fall down staircases. And most inspectors lack specific expertise in pool safety, one of the biggest risks for young children.

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That means buyers not only need to take matters into their own hands, but they should also budget for unexpected expenses that pop up post-purchase. Here are five ways to eliminate, or at least mitigate, those surprise costs:

1. Interview your home inspector. Many buyers, especially first-timers, accept their real-estate agent's recommendation for a home inspector. After all, how different could two inspectors be? Very different, it turns out.

"The value an inspector brings is his knowledge, and not every inspector is as educated as the next one," said Curtis Niles, president of the National Association of Home Inspectors and a home inspector in Upper Darby, Pa.

Niles says buyers should ask potential inspectors how much experience they have, whether they get on the roof of the home and whether they have particular expertise in child safety, environmental-friendliness or any other special concerns. If the property has a pool, the inspector should have specific knowledge and experience about pool safety.

2. Look for common hazards. Older homes often have outdated railings, with spaces so wide that babies and toddlers can crawl through them. "Back in the '50s, the space between railings was over 6 inches. An infant can crawl through that and fall down. Now, the rule is 4 inches," Salomon said.

Backyard pools should be enclosed by gates that are at least 6 feet tall with self-closing hinges and latches at least 54 inches off the ground, out of reach of young children.

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Home inspectors generally don't test for environmental hazards such as lead paint, asbestos and radon, all of which pose significant risks and can be costly to remove, although they might point out that homes are at risk for such dangers. Homes built before 1978, for example, often contain lead, and 9-by-9-inch floor tiles in basements are likely to contain asbestos.

If buyers are aware of these dangers before closing, they can ask the seller to pay for all or some of the abatement, containment or removal costs. A radon system, for example, can cost around $1,500, Salomon said. Lead-paint abatement, which requires an Environmental Protection Agency-certified professional, can be similarly expensive, costing double or triple a standard paint job. Because exposure to lead during childhood can cause serious development problems, buyers with young children should pay special attention to this hazard.

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Older houses also often come with outdated electrical systems, which can require upgrades ranging from costly new wiring to simple outlet covers. Every bedroom should have a smoke detector, too, and every floor a carbon-monoxide detector.

Although these additions are relatively inexpensive, buyers can shorten their own "to-do" lists by asking the sellers to make the updates.

The seller, of course, can refuse; such back-and-forth is part of the negotiation process.

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3. Think about your current, and future, lifestyle. So much of home safety comes down to who's living there. A three-floor home with outdated railings and electrical systems that was perfectly safe for empty-nesters in their 60s can be filled with dangers for a young couple with an infant, seniors who can no longer make their way upstairs easily or a Chihuahua.

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When Julie Lowe, 38, a mother of two in Seattle, bought her first house pre-parenthood, she didn't consider child safety such as railings and chipping lead paint because those concerns weren't on her radar. But as she and her husband shopped for their second house as parents, they focused more on safety. She also wanted all three bedrooms on one floor for easy access to babies in need of comforting in the middle of the night, as well as for security. When her daughter's bedroom was on the lower level and at the front of the house, Lowe said she "had a paranoia about someone breaking in and snatching her." But in the new house, she said, her daughter and son are steps away.

"It won't be so great when they're older, but for small children, having three bedrooms grouped at the back of the house is a luxury," she said.

An inspector will often tailor a checklist to what he perceives to be the buyers' specific needs. If a couple with older children is purchasing a Victorian house with widely spaced railings, Salomon said he wouldn't make as big a deal about the safety hazard as he would if the buyers' children were young.